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JanPratinidhi
JanPratinidhi

Shivsena

Shivsena

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Introduction - 

Shiv Sena, is a Marathi chauvinistic and Hindu nationalist political organisation in India founded on 19 June 1966 by political cartoonist Bal Thackeray. The party originally emerged from a movement in Mumbai demanding preferential treatment for Maharashtrians over migrants to the city. The party has a powerful hold over the Bollywood film industry.It is currently headed by Thackeray's son, Uddhav Thackeray. Members of Shiv Sena are referred to as Shiv Sainiks. The group has been seen by some as a terror group,and has been linked directly with the 1970 communal violence in Bhiwandi, 1984 Bhiwandi riots,and violence in the 1992-1993 Bombay riots.
 
Although the party's primary base is still in Maharashtra, it has tried to expand to a pan-Indian base. In the 1970s, it gradually moved from solely advocating a pro-Marathi ideology, to one supporting a broader Hindu nationalist agenda,as it aligned itself with the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is commonly called an "extremist and "chauvinist" party,as well as a "Hindu extremist" and fascist party.The party has taken part in numerous Maharashtra state governments at several times and was a coalition partner in the National Democratic Alliance cabinet that ruled India between 1998–2004, it is part of the incumbent NDA coalition that came to power in the 2014 general elections.
 
History - 
 
Origins
After the Independence of India in 1947, regional administrative divisions from the colonial era were gradually changed and states following linguistic borders were created. Within the Bombay Presidency a massive popular struggle was launched for the creation of a state for the Marathi-speaking people. In 1960 the presidency was divided into two linguistic states, Gujarat and Maharashtra. Moreover, Marathi-speaking areas of the erstwhile Hyderabad state were joined with Maharashtra. Mumbai, in many ways the economic capital of India, became the state capital of Maharashtra. On one hand, people belonging to the Gujarati community owned the majority of the industry and trade enterprises in the city.On the other, there was a steady flow of South Indian migrants to the city, and who came to take over many white-collar employments.
 
In 1960 Bal Thackeray, a Mumbai-based cartoonist, began publishing the satirical cartoon weekly Marmik. Through this publication he started disseminating anti-migrant sentiments. On 19 June 1966, Thackeray founded the Shiv Sena as a political organisation. At the time of its foundation, the Shiv Sena was not a political party as such.
 
The Shiv Sena especially attracted a large number of disgruntled and often unemployed Marathi youth, who were attracted by Thackeray's charged anti-migrant oratory. In its early days, the Shiv Sena followed an anti-South agenda and its slogan was "Pungi Bajao, Lungi Bhagao" ("Blow the flute, and drive the lungis or South Indians away").Shiv Sena cadres became involved in various attacks against the South Indian communities, vandalising South Indian restaurants and pressuring employers to hire Marathis.

1995 election
The Shiv Sena-BJP combine won the 1995 Maharasthra state elections. After assuming state government power, Shiv Sena began to redress its organisation. A 'Shivsena Rajyapramukh Parishad' convention was held in Mumbai six months after the election. At the meeting a large number of local party leaders and representatives of various wings of the party participated. The meeting filled the function of reorienting the party organisation to adapt to the new tasks of being a party in government.It renamed Bombay as Mumbai.
 
Alliance with the Bharatiya Janata Party
The Sena started placing more weight on the Hindutva ideology in the 1970s as the hallmark 'sons of the soil' cause was weakening.
 
The party ruled the state in coalition with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) from 1995–99. The Sena is the opposition party in the state along with the BJP since 1999. The Shiv Sena-BJP combine governs the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. Traditionally the main strongholds of Shiv Sena have been Mumbai and the Konkan coastal areas. However, in the 2004 Lok Sabha elections the result was reversed. The Shiv Sena made inroads in the interior parts of the state, while suffering losses in Mumbai.
 
Raj Thackeray split -
In July 2005 Narayan Rane was expelled from the party, which sparked internal conflict in the party. In December the same year Raj Thackeray, Bal Thackeray's nephew, left the party.Raj Thackeray later founded a new party, Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS). After the split, clashes have occurred between followers of the two Senas.
 
Although the MNS is a break-away group from the Shiv Sena, the party is still based Bhumiputra ideology. When unveiling the party in an assembly at Shivaji Park he said, that everyone is anxious to see what will happen to Hindutva.When unveiling, he also said, "I shall elaborate on the party's stance on issues like Hindutva, its agenda for development of Maharashtra and the significance of the party flag colours at the 19 March public meeting.
 
Raj Thackeray considers himself an Indian nationalist (not just a regionalist) and claims that the Congress is two-faced.
 
After Bal Thackeray - 
Uddhav Thackeray had become the party's leader in 2004, although Bal Thackeray continued to be an important figurehead. After the demise of Bal Thackeray on 17 November 2012 at 3.33 p.m, Uddhav became the sole Pramukh (party leader). However, Uddhav has refused to take the "Pramukh" title.
 
Party structure - 
As the Pramukh (Chief) of the party, Bal Thackeray took all major decisions and claimed that he ran the Sena-Bharatiya Janata Party government of 1995 to 1999 with what he called a 'remote control.' Activists and members of the Shiv Sena call themselves Shiv Sainiks, and carry out most of the party's grassroots work. During his last days, Bal Thackeray did not concern himself with day-to-day activities of the party, which was run by his youngest son Uddhav Thackeray. Aditya Thackeray, son of Shivsena Pakshapramukh Uddhav Thackeray is working as the Youth Leader of the party.
 
The recently refurbished Sena Bhavan located in the Dadar locality in Mumbai has served as the headquarters of the Sena since 1976.The Sena's shakhas (Branches) spread throughout the state of Maharashtra as well as in selected locations in other states decide upon most of the local issues in their particular cities or towns.